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什么叫荷尔蒙 - What is hormone?

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生活当中,很多的人都会说到荷尔蒙。但是大家知道什么是荷尔蒙吗?很多的朋友会说,荷尔蒙其实就是身体当中分泌的一种激素物质,也有人说荷尔蒙就是男性和女性的魅力。其实这两种说法都没错,但是都不够专业。今天我们就来从专业的角度给大家介绍一下荷尔蒙。

什么叫荷尔蒙 - What is hormone?

什么叫荷尔蒙荷尔蒙激素(hormone)就是高度分化的内分泌细胞合成并直接分泌入血的化学信息物质。通过调节各种组织细胞的代谢活动来影响人体的生理活动。激素是调节机体正常活动的重要物质。它们中的任何一种都不能在体内发动一个新的代谢过程。

它们也不直接参与物质或能量的转换,只是直接或间接地促进或减慢体内原有的代谢过程。如生长和发育都是人体原有的代谢过程,生长激素或其他相关激素增加,可加快这一进程,减少则使生长发育迟缓。激素对人类的繁殖、生长、发育、各种其他生理功能、行为变化以及适应内外环境等,都能发挥重要的调节作用。一旦激素分泌失衡,便会带来疾病。

激素只对一定的组织或细胞(称为靶组织或靶细胞)发挥特有的作用。人体的每一种组织、细胞,都可成为这种或那种激素的靶组织或靶细胞。而每一种激素,又可以选择一种或几种组织、细胞作为本激素的靶组织或靶细胞。如生长激素可以在骨骼、肌肉、结缔组织和内脏上发挥特有作用,使人体长得高大粗壮。但肌肉也充当了雄激素、甲状腺素的靶组织。

一、激素亦称“荷尔蒙”,希腊文原意为“奋起活动”,它对肌体的代谢、生长、发育和繁殖等起重要的调节作用。

1853年,法国的巴纳德研究了各种动物的胃液后,发现了肝脏具有多种不可思议的功能。贝尔纳认为含有一种物质来完成这种功能。可是他没有研究出这种物质,实际上那就是激素。

1880年,德国的奥斯特瓦尔德从甲状腺中提出大量含有碘的物质,并确认这就是调节甲状腺功能的物质。后来才知道这也是一种激素。

什么叫荷尔蒙 - What is hormone?

1889年,巴纳德的学生西夸德发现了另一种激素的功能。他认为动物的睾丸中一定含有活跃身体功能的物质,但一直未能找到。

1901年,在美国从事研究工作的日本人高峰让吉从牛的副肾中提取出调节血压的物质,并做成晶体,起名为肾上腺素,这是世界上提取出的第一激素晶体。

1902年,英国生理学家斯塔林和贝利斯经过长期的观察研究,发现当食物进入小肠时,由于食物在肠壁磨擦,小肠粘膜就会分泌出一种数量极少的物质进入血液,流送到胰腺,胰腺接到后就立刻分泌出胰液来。他们将这种物质提取出来,注入哺乳动物的血液中,发现即使动物不吃东西,也会立刻分泌出胰液来,于是他们给这种物质起名为“促胰液”。

后来斯塔林和贝利斯给上述这类数量极少但有生理作用,可激起生物体内器官反应的物质起名为“激素”(荷尔蒙)。

自从出现激素一词后,新的激素又不断地被发现,人们对激素的认识还在不断地加深、扩大。

什么叫荷尔蒙 - What is hormone?

二、由人和动物某些细胞合成和分泌能调节机体生理活动的特殊物质。现在把凡是通过血液循环或组织液起传递信息作用的化学物质,都称为激素。激素的分泌量均极微,为毫微克(十亿分之一克)水平,但其调节作用均极明显。激素作用甚广,但不参加具体的代谢过程,只对特定的代谢和生理过程起调节作用,调节代谢及生理过程的进行速度和方向,从而使机体的活动更适应于内外环境的变化。激素的作用机制是通过与细胞膜上或细胞质中的专一性受体蛋白结合而将信息传入细胞,引起细胞内发生一系列相应的连锁变化,最后表达出激素的生理效应。激素的生理作用主要是:通过调节蛋白质、糖和脂肪等物质的代谢与水盐代谢,维持代谢的平衡,为生理活动提供能量;促进细胞的分裂与分化,确保各组织、器官的正常生长、发育及成熟,并影响衰老过程;影响神经系统的发育及其活动;促进生殖器官的发育与成熟,调节生殖过程;与神经系统密切配合,使机体能更好地适应环境变化。研究激素不仅可了解某些激素对动物和人体的生长、发育、生殖的影响及致病的机理,还可利用测定激素来诊断疾病。许多激素制剂及其人工合成的产物已广泛应用于临床治疗及农业生产,利用遗传工程的方法使细菌生产某些激素,如生长激素、胰岛素等已经成为现实,并已广泛应用于临床上 。


Reading guide

In life, many people talk about hormones. But do you know what hormones are? Many friends will say that hormones are actually hormones secreted by the body, some people say that hormones are the charm of men and women. In fact, these two statements are true, but they are not professional enough. Today we are going to introduce hormones to you from a professional perspective.

什么叫荷尔蒙 - What is hormone?

What is called hormone is a highly differentiated endocrine cell synthesis and direct secretion of chemical information into the blood. By regulating the metabolic activities of various tissues and cells, the physiological activities of human body can be affected. Hormone is an important substance regulating the normal activity of the body. None of them can initiate a new metabolic process in the body.

They are not directly involved in the conversion of substances or energy, but directly or indirectly promote or slow down the original metabolic process in the body. If growth and development are the original metabolic process of the human body, growth hormone or other related hormones increase, can accelerate this process, reduce the growth and development retardation. Hormones play an important regulatory role in human reproduction, growth, development, various other physiological functions, behavioral changes and adaptation to internal and external environment. Once the hormone secretion is out of balance, it will bring diseases.

Hormones play a unique role in certain tissues or cells (called target tissue or target cells). Every tissue or cell of the human body can be a target or target cell of this hormone. For each hormone, one or more tissues and cells can be selected as the target tissue or target cells of the hormone. For example, growth hormone can play a unique role in bone, muscle, connective tissue and viscera, so that the human body grows tall and strong. But muscle also acts as a target tissue for androgen and thyroxine.

1. Hormones, also known as "hormones", were originally meant to "rise" in Greek. They play an important role in regulating the metabolism, growth, development and reproduction of the body.

In 1853, Barnard of France studied the gastric juices of various animals and discovered that the liver had a variety of magical functions. Bernard thought there was a substance to accomplish this function. But he did not study this substance. In fact, it was hormone.

In 1880, Ostwald in Germany extracted a large amount of iodine from the thyroid gland and confirmed that this is the substance regulating thyroid function. Later I learned that this is also a hormone.

什么叫荷尔蒙 - What is hormone?

In 1889, Barnard's student, west side, discovered another kind of hormone function. He believes that animals' testicles must contain substances that are active in body function, but they have not been found.

In 1901, at the height of Japanese research in the United States, Jekyll took blood pressure-regulating substances from cattle's accessory kidneys and made them into crystals, called adrenaline, the first hormone crystals in the world.

In 1902, British physiologists Stalin and Baillis, after a long period of observation and study, found that when food into the small intestine, because food in the intestinal wall friction, small intestinal mucosa will secrete a very small amount of material into the blood, flow to the pancreas, the pancreas immediately after receiving the secretion of pancreatic juice. They extracted the substance and injected it into the blood of mammals. They found that even if the animals did not eat, they immediately secreted pancreatic juice. They named it pancreatic juice.

Later Stalin and Bailis gave these very small but physiological amounts of substances called "hormones" to trigger organ responses in organisms.

Since the advent of the word hormone, new hormones have been discovered, and people's understanding of hormones is constantly deepening and expanding.

什么叫荷尔蒙 - What is hormone?

Two. Some cells from humans and animals synthesize and secrete special substances that regulate physiological activities of the body. Now the chemical substances that transmit information through blood circulation or tissue fluids are called hormones. Hormone secretion was minimal at the level of nanograms (billionths of a gram), but its regulatory effect was very obvious. Hormones play a very wide role, but do not participate in specific metabolic processes, only play a regulatory role in specific metabolic and physiological processes, regulate the speed and direction of metabolism and physiological processes, so that the body's activities more adapt to changes in the internal and external environment. Hormones act by binding to specific receptor proteins on the cell membrane or in the cytoplasm to transmit information into the cell, causing a series of corresponding chain changes in the cell, and finally expressing the physiological effects of hormones. The physiological functions of hormones are: to maintain the balance of metabolism and provide energy for physiological activities by regulating the metabolism of protein, sugar and fat, water and salt; to promote cell division and differentiation, to ensure the normal growth, development and maturity of various tissues and organs, and to influence the aging process; and to influence the nervous system. Development and its activities; promote the development and maturation of reproductive organs, regulate reproductive processes; closely cooperate with the nervous system, so that the body can better adapt to environmental changes. The study of hormones can not only understand the effects of some hormones on the growth, development, reproduction and pathogenesis of animals and human body, but also diagnose diseases by measuring hormones. Many hormone preparations and their synthetic products have been widely used in clinical treatment and agricultural production. The production of certain hormones, such as growth hormone and insulin, by genetic engineering has become a reality and has been widely used in clinical practice.

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